Chondrosarcoma is a malignant type of bone cancer that primarily affects the cartilage cells of the femur, arm, pelvis, knee, and spine.
An enchondroma is a type of noncancerous bone tumor that begins in cartilage. An enchondroma most often affects the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones. It often affects the tiny long bones of the hands and feet. It may also affect other bones such as the femur (thighbone), humerus (upper arm bone), or tibia (one of the two lower leg bones).
Prognosis is a word your healthcare team may use to describe the likely outcome from cancer and cancer treatment. Learn about the chances of recovery from Ewing sarcoma.
Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which an abnormal development of fibrous tissue causes bones to expand. Any bone can be affected. More than one bone can be affected at any one time, and, when multiple bones are affected, it is not unusual for them to all be on one side of the body. However, fibrous dysplasia does not spread from one bone to another.
A giant cell tumor is one that is made up of a large number of benign (noncancerous) cells that form an aggressive tumor. It usually develops near a joint at the end of the bone. The location of a giant cell tumor is often in the knee, but can also involve the bones of the arms and the legs, or the flat bones such as the breastbone or pelvis.
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a metabolic disorder in which one or more of the parathyroid glands produces too much parathyroid hormone. This can result in a loss of bone tissue. A job of the parathyroid hormone is to keep blood calcium levels from going too low. This is done by releasing calcium from bones. The hormone also conserves calcium that would be excreted by the kidneys, and increases how much calcium is absorbed from food. When the hormone overacts, the result is a rise in the blood calcium level. Too much parathyroid hormone causes too much calcium to be released from bone.
Myeloma bone disease is cancer that affects certain white blood cells called plasma cells.
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is an inherited (genetic) bone disorder that is present at birth. It is also known as brittle bone disease. A child born with OI may have soft bones that break (fracture) easily, bones that are not formed normally, and other problems. Signs and symptoms may range from mild to severe.
Osteochondroma is an overgrowth of cartilage and bone at the end of the bone near the growth plate. Most often, it affects the long bones in the leg, the pelvis, or the shoulder blade.
Osteomyelitis is an inflammation or swelling of bone tissue. It’s most often caused by an infection. Bone infection may occur for many reasons and can affect children or adults.
Osteosarcoma usually affects the long bones around the knee. It happens most often in children, adolescents, and young adults.
Paget disease of the bone is a chronic bone disorder. It causes bones to become enlarged and deformed. Bone may become dense, but fragile, because of excessive breakdown and deformation of bone. The disease is the most common bone disorder after osteoporosis in people over age 50.
The most common type of breast infection is lactational mastitis. This happens when a woman is breastfeeding. The nipples become cracked and sore, allowing bacteria from the baby's mouth to enter the ducts and rapidly multiply in the milk.
The two most common types of benign breast lumps are cysts and fibroadenomas. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. Fibroadenomas are solid, smooth, firm, benign lumps that are most commonly found in women in their late teens and early 20s.
Whenever the normal drainage pattern in the lymph nodes is disturbed or damaged—often during surgery to remove the lymph nodes—the arm may swell. This swelling, caused by too much fluid, is called lymphedema.
Breast cancer in men is rare—less than 1% of all breast cancer occurs in men.
There are 2 main types of breast pain. The most common type is linked to the menstrual cycle and is almost always hormonal.
Nipple conditions are a common benign breast condition affecting many women. Some problems are related to lactation, and others are not.
An aneurysm is a bulging, weak area in the wall of a blood vessel. An aneurysm may occur in any blood vessel, but most often develops in an artery rather than a vein.
Angina pectoris—or simply angina—is chest pain or discomfort that keeps coming back. It happens when some part of your heart does not get enough blood and oxygen.
An arrhythmia is an abnormal heart rhythm that can cause problems with the contractions of your heart chambers.
Atherosclerosis is a type of thickening or hardening of the arteries caused by a buildup of plaque in the inner lining of an artery. It can increase your risk of heart attack, stroke, and other circulatory conditions.
Atrial fibrillation, or AFib, is a kind of abnormal heart rhythm or arrhythmia. AFib increases the risk for blood clots. These clots can then travel to the brain, causing a stroke. This is why AFib significantly increases the risk for stroke.
Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively.
When the heart or blood vessels near the heart do not develop normally before birth, it's called a congenital heart defect.